Energy and macronutrient content of human milk during early lactation from mothers giving birth prematurely and at term
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The lactose, lipid, protein, and total energy content of milk produced during the first 4 wk of lactation was determined in milk from mothers giving birth prematurely and at term. Milk samples analyzed were representative of complete 24-h expressions. Over the first 4 wk of lactation lactose concentration increased, but nitrogen concentration decreased by an average of 25%. Lipid and total energy concentration increased by 25% from the 1st to 2nd wk and then remained stable in both groups. Although these changes with duration of lactation were similar in both groups, premature compared to full term milk was consistently 20 to 30% higher in total energy and lipid concentration, 15 to 20% higher in total protein and, after the 1st wk, approximately 10% lower in lactose. By comparing predicted nutrient intakes to estimated requirements of premature infants fed 150 to 200 ml/kg/day of their own mothers' milk, we predict that the quantities of protein and energy provided would be adequate to meet the needs of the infant during the early weeks of life.
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