Conformational requirement for lysine hydroxylation in collagen. Structural studies on synthetic peptide substrates of lysyl hydroxylase.
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An attempt has been made to understand the conformational determinants that govern the hydroxylation of selected lysyl residues in the nascent collagen molecule by lysyl hydroxylase (EC 184.108.40.206). A series of peptide substrates of the enzyme, ranging in length from 3 to 12 residues, were synthesized. These included: tert-butyloxylcarbonyl (t-Boc)-Ile-Lys-Gly; Boc-Ala-Lys-Gly; N-acetyl-Ala-Lys-Gly-Ser; Hyp-Gly-Pro-Lys-Gly-Glu; Leu-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Lys-Gly-Glu; Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Leu-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Lys-Gly-Glu; (Hyp-Gly-Pro-Lys-Gly-Glu)2; and Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly. The conformational features of these peptides were studied by spectroscopic methods so as to relate this information with the kinetic parameters for the interaction of these peptides with purified lysyl hydroxylase. Spectroscopic data, supported by conformational energy calculations, indicated that the tripeptides t-Boc-Ile-Lys-Gly and t-Boc-Ala-Lys-Gly adopt a gamma-turn structure in water and trifluoroethanol with Lys in the second position of the turn. In the tetra- and larger peptides two structures, the beta-turn and a polyproline-II (PP-II) type extended conformation, were identified. The proportions of these two structures in a given peptide depended on the polarity of the solvent. All of the peptides were hydroxylated by lysyl hydroxylase isolated from chicken embryos. In contrast, a control peptide, t-Boc-Ala-Gly-Lys which adopted a beta-turn with Lys at the end of the turn, was not hydroxylated. Competitive inhibition of the hydroxylation of protocollagen by some of the peptides showed a common binding site for these substrates in the enzyme's active site. Kinetic data on the peptides indicated improved hydroxylation rate (higher Vmax) in peptides having relatively higher beta-turn content and improved binding (lower Km) in peptides with higher content of the PP-II structure. The efficacy of the substrate was also governed by its chain length. These data suggest that the conformational criterion for lysine hydroxylation in collagen-related peptides is the presence of a "bent" structure, such as the gamma- or beta-turn at the catalytic site of lysyl hydroxylase and an "extended" PP-II type structure at the binding site(s) of the enzyme's active site. This suggestion also provides a conformational rationale for earlier observations on the substrate specificity of lysyl hydroxylase.
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