Intracellular Trafficking of CD23: Differential Regulation in Humans and Mice by Both Extracellular and Intracellular Exons
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In mouse models of food allergy, we recently characterized a new CD23b-derived splice form lacking extracellular exon 5, bDelta5, which undergoes constitutive internalization and mediates the transepithelial transport of free IgE, whereas classical CD23b is more efficient in transporting IgE/allergen complexes. These data suggested that regulation of endocytosis plays a central role in CD23 functions and drove us to systematically compare the intracellular trafficking properties of human and murine CD23 splice forms. We found that CD23 species show similar endocytic behaviors in both species; CD23a undergoes constitutive clathrin-dependent internalization, whereas CD23b is stable at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms controlling these similar behaviors appeared to be different. In mice, a positive internalization signal was localized in the cytoplasmic region shared by all CD23 splice forms. This positive signal was negatively regulated by the intracellular CD23b-specific exon. In addition, the fact that alternative splice forms lacking exons of the extracellular region (5, 6, 7, and/or 8) were all constitutively internalized suggested that endocytosis of murine CD23 is regulated by a process similar to the outside-in signaling of integrins. In humans, the internalization signal was mapped in the CD23a-specific intracellular exon. Interestingly, this signal also behaved as a basolateral targeting signal in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The latter result and the fact that human intestinal cell lines were found to coexpress both CD23a and CD23b provide a molecular explanation for the initial observations that CD23 was found at the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelial cells from allergic patients.
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