Graft Diameter as a Predictor for Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and KOOS and EQ-5D Values: A Cohort Study From the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register Based on 2240 Patients
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BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) using a hamstring tendon (HT) autograft is an effective and widespread method. Recent studies have identified a relationship between the graft diameter and revision ACLR. PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the graft diameter on revision ACLR and patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing primary ACLR using HT autografts. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted using the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register (SNKLR) involving all patients undergoing primary ACLR using HT autografts. Patients with graft failure who needed revision surgery (cases) were compared with patients not undergoing revision surgery (controls). The control group was matched for sex, age, and graft fixation method in a 3:1 ratio. Conditional logistic regression was performed to produce odds ratios and 95% CIs. Univariate linear regression analyses were performed for patient-related outcomes. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) values were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 2240 patients were included in which there were 560 cases and 1680 controls. No significant differences between the cases and controls were found for sex (52.9% male), mean age (21.7 years), and femoral and tibial fixation. The mean graft diameter for the cases was 8.0 ± 0.74 mm and for the controls was 8.1 ± 0.76 mm. In the present cohort, the likelihood of revision surgery for every 0.5-mm increase in the HT autograft diameter between 7.0 and 10.0 mm was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75-0.99; P = .03). Univariate linear regression analysis found no significant regression coefficient for the change in KOOS or EQ-5D values. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients after primary ACLR with HT autografts, an increase in the graft diameter between 7.0 and 10.0 mm resulted in a 0.86 times lower likelihood of revision surgery with every 0.5-mm increase. This study provides further evidence of the importance of the HT autograft size in intraoperative decision making.
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