Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme upregulation in SOD1-G93A mouse skeletal muscle
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by motor neuron loss in the spinal cord, but the mechanisms responsible are not known. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations causing familial ALS (SOD1mut) leads to an ALS phenotype in mice; however, restricted expression of SOD1mut in neurons alone is not sufficient to cause this phenotype, suggesting that non-neuronal SOD1mut expression is also required for disease manifestation. Recently, several investigators have suggested that SOD1mut -mediated oxidative stress in skeletal muscle may contribute to ALS pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme adaptation in 95-day-old SOD1-G93A skeletal muscle. We observed significant elevations in both malondialdehyde (22% and 31% in red and white gastrocnemius, respectively) and protein carbonyls (53% in red gastrocnemius) in SOD1-G93A mice. Copper/zinc SOD activity was higher in red and white SOD1-G93A gastrocnemius (7- and 10-fold, respectively), as was manganese SOD (4- and 5-fold, respectively) and catalase (2- and 2.5-fold, respectively). Taken together, our data demonstrate oxidative stress and compensatory antioxidant enzyme upregulation in SOD1-G93A skeletal muscle.
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