CD8+ T-cell-mediated suppression of HIV-1 long terminal repeat-driven gene expression is not modulated by the CC chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta in modulation of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated gene expression and determine whether these chemokines share identity with CD8+ T-lymphocyte-derived HIV-1 LTR-suppressive factors. DESIGN: HIV-1 LTR-directed reporter gene expression is a model for transcription that is susceptible to inhibition by factors produced by CD8+ lymphocytes of HIV-1-infected individuals. The effect of recombinant chemokines on LTR-directed gene expression was examined. The ability of chemokines found to be present in CD8 supernatants to suppress HIV-1 LTR-mediated gene expression was determined by antibody inhibition assays. METHODS: The concentrations of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta in a panel of CD8+ T-lymphocyte-derived supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant chemokines were added to freshly transfected (pLTR-CAT and pSV40-tat) human Jurkat T cells. Excessive polyclonal neutralizing antibodies to these chemokines were added to transfected Jurkat T cells cultured in the presence of strongly inhibitory CD8+ T-cell-derived supernatants with known chemokine concentrations. RESULTS: The concentrations of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta in a panel of CD8+ lymphocyte-derived supernatants were found to correlate with their relative ability to suppress the LTR-mediated gene expression (r = 0.679, 0.764 and 0.48, respectively). The addition of recombinant CC chemokines had no effect over a broad range of doses on HIV-1 LTR-mediated gene expression. The CD8-suppressive effect on HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression was not abrogated by a combination of antibodies of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta. CONCLUSIONS: RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta do not alter HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression at doses up to 100 ng/ml. Although present in varying concentrations in supernatants derived from CD8+ lymphocytes from HIV-positive individuals, these chemokines are not responsible for the powerful CD8-derived suppressive effect on HIV-1 LTR-mediated gene expression observed in our system.
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