Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRTs): The British Columbia's Children's Hospital's Experience, 1986-2006
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As "atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors" (ATRTs) may mimic "small round blue cell tumors" (SRBCT), we reexamined our ATRT experience focusing upon INI-1 immunohistochemistry (IHC). All high-grade pediatric brain tumors occurring from 1986-2006 at our institution underwent INI-1 IHC. Clinicopathologic data from each INI-1 immunonegative case were reviewed. Additional genetic, epigenetic and IHC analyses (including interrogation of INI-1 and CLDN6) were performed on a subset of the INI-1 immunonegative cases. Twelve INI-1 IHC negative tumors were identified retrospectively, of which only two previously carried the diagnosis of ATRT. Overall, the clinicopathologic and genetic data supported the assertion that all 12 cases represented ATRT. Unexpectedly, three long-term survivors (4.2, 7.0 and 8.5 years) were identified. As hypothesized, "teratoid" and "rhabdoid" histologic features were relatively infrequent despite gross total resections in some cases. Methylation specific polymer chain reaction (PCR) (MSP) revealed a uniform methylation pattern across all cases and gene promoters tested (ie, MGMT, HIC1, MLH3 and RASSF1); notably, all cases demonstrated unmethylated MGMT promoters. Our data demonstate that a primitive non-rhabdoid histophenotype is common among ATRTs and highlights the diagnostic importance of INI-1 IHC. Epigenetically, the MGMT promoter is usually unmethylated in ATRT, suggesting that potential temozolomide-based chemotherapy may be of limited efficacy.
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