Comparative studies of host-cell reactivation, cellular capacity and enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus in normal, xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome fibroblasts
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Host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), capacity of UV-irradiated cells to support HSV-2 plaque formation and UV-enhanced reactivation (UVER) of UV-irradiated HSV-2 were examined in fibroblasts from 4 patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), 5 with xeroderma pigmentosum and 5 normals. All UV-survival curves for HSV-2 plaque formation showed 2 components. HCR was similar to normal for the XP variant strain and the 2 CS strains tested, but substantially reduced in the 4 excision-deficient XP strains. The capacity of UV-irradiated fibroblasts to support HSV-2 plaque formation was determined by UV-irradiating fibroblast monolayers with various doses of UV and 48 h later, infecting the monolayers with unirradiated HSV-2. The D37 values for the delayed-capacity curves so obtained were in the range 8.6-12.4 J/m2 for the normal strains, 2.8-3.2 J/m2 for the CS strains, 6.7 J/m2 for an XP variant strain and between 0.3 and 1.5 for the XP excision-deficient strains tested. These results indicate that delayed capacity for HSV-2 plaque formation is a more sensitive assay than HCR in the detection of cellular DNA-repair deficiency for XP and CS. For the examination of UVER, fibroblasts were irradiated with various UV doses and subsequently infected with either unirradiated or UV-irradiated HSV and scored for plaque formation 2 days later. UVER expression was maximum when the delay between UV-irradiation of the cells and HSV infection was 48 h. The magnitude of UVER expression was also found to be dependent on the UV dose to the cells and increased with increasing UV dose to the virus. Using a UV dose to the virus resulting in a plaque survival of about 10(-2) on unirradiated cells, the the maximum UVER factor had a mean value of 1.3 for the normal strains following a dose of 15 J/m2 to the cells. Somewhat higher UVER values were found for all the patient strains tested and resulted from lower UV doses to the cells than for normal strains. Maximum UVER factors for the CS strains ranged from 2.2 to 3.3 at a dose of 5 J/m2 to the cells, for the XP excision-deficient strains; 2.1 to 2.6 at doses of 0.5 to 2.5 J/m2 to the cells and for the XP variant strain tested; 2.5 at UV dose of 10 J/m2 to the cells.
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