Shank-interacting protein–like 1 promotes tumorigenesis via PTEN inhibition in human tumor cells
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Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a critical step during tumorigenesis, and PTEN inactivation by genetic and epigenetic means has been well studied. There is also evidence suggesting that PTEN negative regulators (PTEN-NRs) have a role in PTEN inactivation during tumorigenesis, but their identity has remained elusive. Here we have identified shank-interacting protein-like 1 (SIPL1) as a PTEN-NR in human tumor cell lines and human primary cervical cancer cells. Ectopic SIPL1 expression protected human U87 glioma cells from PTEN-mediated growth inhibition and promoted the formation of HeLa cell-derived xenograft tumors in immunocompromised mice. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of SIPL1 expression inhibited the growth of both HeLa cells and DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft tumor model. These inhibitions were reversed by concomitant knockdown of PTEN, demonstrating that SIPL1 affects tumorigenesis via inhibition of PTEN function. Mechanistically, SIPL1 was found to interact with PTEN through its ubiquitin-like domain (UBL), inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) phosphatase activity of PTEN. Furthermore, SIPL1 expression correlated with loss of PTEN function in PTEN-positive human primary cervical cancer tissue. Taken together, these observations indicate that SIPL1 is a PTEN-NR and that it facilitates tumorigenesis, at least in part, through its PTEN inhibitory function.
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