The Effect of Cerebral Palsy on Arithmetic Accuracy is Mediated by Working Memory, Intelligence, Early Numeracy, and Instruction Time
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The development of addition and subtraction accuracy was assessed in first graders with cerebral palsy (CP) in both mainstream (16) and special education (41) and a control group of first graders in mainstream education (16). The control group out-performed the CP groups in addition and subtraction accuracy and this difference could not be fully explained by differences in intelligence. Both CP groups showed evidence of working memory deficits. The three groups exhibited different developmental patterns in the area of early numeracy skills. Children with CP in special education were found to receive less arithmetic instruction and instruction time was positively related to arithmetic accuracy. Structural equation modeling revealed that the effect of CP on arithmetic accuracy is mediated by intelligence, working memory, early numeracy, and instruction time.
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