- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene. Thirty-seven ethnic Polish patients with SLOS underwent mutation analysis. The mutation frequencies in Polish patients were significantly different from those observed in Western European populations. Two mutations, W151X (22/68 alleles, 32%) and V326L (19/68 alleles, 28%), accounted for 60% of all observed in our cohort. Two missense mutations L68P and L360P have not been reported previously. In total, we report 15 DHCR7 mutations identified in Polish patients. By comparing clinical severity scores and the biochemical and molecular data, a genotype-phenotype correlation was attempted. In compound heterozygotes with one null mutation, the phenotype severity depends on the localization and type of the second mutation: mild phenotypes are correlated with mutations affecting the putative transmembrane domains TM1-TM6 or CT regions and severe phenotypes with mutations localized in TM7 and 4L region. The phenotypic differences of patients with the same genotype suggest that severity of the disease may be affected by other factors.