Altered regulation of in-vivo coagulation in orthopedic patients prior to knee or hip replacement surgery
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Up to 20% of patients develop venographically proven deep-vein thrombosis after elective orthopedic surgery even under the cover of heparin or low molecular weight heparin. The extent to which the chronic inflammation of osteoarthritis requiring elective orthopedic surgery alters in-vivo coagulation and whether any specific alteration influences the development of postoperative thrombosis are unknown. This study compared the concentrations of activated factor VII (FVIIa), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), activated factor X (FXa)-TFPI, thrombin-antithrombin, and prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) in plasmas of 535 healthy individuals (ages 17-76) with those in the preoperative plasmas of 306 arthritis patients (ages 30-92) scheduled for elective knee or hip replacement surgery. C-reactive protein was also measured in the plasmas of approximately 15% of the participants. Age-adjusted concentrations of FVIIa, F1+2, and C-reactive protein were higher in patients than controls, while the concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin, TFPI and FXa-TFPI were similar. Chronic inflammation in the patients was thus associated with increased coagulation in vivo. Without compensatory increases in the concentrations of TFPI (natural inhibitor of prothrombinase), the elevated concentrations of FVIIa in the preoperative plasmas and the trauma associated with surgery may enhance the risk for developing postoperative deep-vein thrombosis.
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