Moderate nutrient supplementation of mother’s milk for preterm infants supports adequate bone mass and short-term growth: a randomized, controlled trial
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Our objectives were 1) to determine whether moderate nutrient supplementation of mother's milk (MM) for preterm infants, in the form of a new multinutrient fortifier (MNF), would improve short-term growth and bone mineral content (BMC) when compared with supplementation with calcium and phosphorus alone; and 2) to investigate whether moderate calcium and phosphorus intakes, in the form of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP), resulted in a BMC similar to that of term corrected infants. Twenty-five preterm infants fed MM were randomly assigned to receive either MM+MNF or MM+CaGP. A third group of infants fed preterm formula (PTF) served as a comparison group. Whole-body BMC and lean and fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at full-term age. Nitrogen retention and calcium, phosphorus, and zinc intakes were determined by using mass balance techniques. Nitrogen retention was significantly lower in the MM+CaGP group than in the PTF group as were both weight and length gain (weight gain: 16.6 +/- 1.6, 14.2 +/- 2.0, and 16.1 +/- 2.9 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); length gain: 1.1 +/- 0.2, 0.9 +/- 0.2, and 1.1 +/- 0.3 cm/wk for the MM+MNF, MM+CaGP, and PTF groups, respectively). Biochemical indexes of mineral status and bone turnover were normal. Conservative amounts of calcium and phosphorus, as CaGP, resulted in adequate BMC. Moderate amounts of protein, calcium, and phosphorus plus trace elements added to MM in the form of an MNF resulted in improved linear growth but did not provide any advantages to BMC when compared with supplementation with calcium and phosphorus alone.
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