Recommended clinical practices for maximizing peritoneal dialysis clearances.
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Data from the Canada-U.S.A. (CANUSA) Study have recently confirmed a long-suspected linkage between total clearance and patient survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Recognizing that what we have historically accepted as adequate PD simply is not, the Ad Hoc Committee on Peritoneal Dialysis Adequacy met in January, 1996. This committee of invited experts was convened by Baxter Healthcare Corporation to prepare a consensus statement that provides clinical recommendations for achieving clearance guidelines for peritoneal dialysis. Through an analysis of 806 PD patients, the group concluded that adequate clearance delivered with PD can be achieved in almost all patients if the prescription is individualized according to the patient's body surface area, amount of residual renal function, and peritoneal membrane transport characteristics. Use of 2.5 L to 3.0 L fill volumes, the addition of an extra exchange, and giving automated peritoneal dialysis patients a "wet" day are all options to consider when increasing weekly creatinine clearance and KT/V. Rather than specify a single clearance or KT/V target, the recommended clinical practice is to provide the most dialysis that can be delivered to the individual patient, within the constraints of social and clinical circumstances, quality of life, life-style, and cost. The challenge to PD practitioners is to make prescription management an integral part of everyday patient management. This includes assessment of peritoneal membrane permeability, measurement of dialysis and residual renal clearance, and adjustment of the dialysis prescription when indicated.
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