Caloxin: a novel plasma membrane Ca2+ pump inhibitor
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Plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ pump is a Ca+-Mg2+-ATPase that expels Ca2+ from cells to help them maintain low concentrations of cytosolic Ca2+ . There are no known extracellularly acting PM Ca2+ pump inhibitors, as digoxin and ouabain are for Na+ pump. In analogy with digoxin, we define caloxins as extracellular PM Ca2+ pump inhibitors and describe caloxin 2A1. Caloxin 2A1 is a peptide obtained by screening a random peptide phage display library for binding to the second extracellular domain (residues 401-413) sequence of PM Ca2+ pump isoform 1b. Caloxin 2A1 inhibits Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in human erythrocyte leaky ghosts, but it does not affect basal Mg2+-ATPase or Na+-K+-ATPase in the ghosts or Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Caloxin 2A1 also inhibits Ca2+-dependent formation of the 140-kDa acid-stable acylphosphate, which is a partial reaction of this enzyme. Consistent with inhibition of the PM Ca2+ pump in vascular endothelium, caloxin 2A1 produces an endothelium-dependent relaxation that is reversed by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Thus caloxin 2A1 is a novel PM Ca2+ pump inhibitor selected for binding to an extracellular domain.
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