Growth and body composition in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia up to 3 months corrected age: A randomized trial of a high-energy nutrient-enriched formula fed after hospital discharge
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OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine whether nutrient malabsorption or inadequate nutrient intake were involved in the cause of growth delay in patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and (2) to determine whether a nutrient-enriched formula given to infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia to 3 months corrected age improves the rate of growth with greater lean and bone mass accretion when compared with infants fed an isoenergetic standard infant formula. STUDY DESIGN: A blinded, nutrition intervention trial of 60 preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (birth weight, 866 +/- 169 g, gestational age, 26 +/- 1.5 weeks) randomized to either nutrient-enriched formula or standard formula. Growth, body composition, and nutrient retention were compared between groups by Student's t tests and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Infants fed the enriched formula had significantly greater nitrogen and mineral retention at 38 weeks' postmenstrual age, and only the infants fed enriched formula had zinc retention similar to the intrauterine accretion. At 3 months corrected age infants fed enriched formula attained greater length (P < .05), greater radial bone mineral content (P < .01), and greater lean mass (P < .01). The male infants in the enriched formula group had greater whole body bone mineral content than did male infants in the standard formula group (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Greater linear growth and lean and bone mass in the enriched formula group suggests that infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia attain faster "catch-up" growth when fed higher intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc than provided in standard proprietary formulas.
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