The thrombolytic and hemorrhagic effects of tissue type plasminogen activator: Influence of dosage regimens in rabrits
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Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is an effective thrombolytic agent in experimental animals and in humans. We have previously observed that the thrombolytic effect of t-PA persists beyond its time of clearance from the circulation and that wound bleeding induced by a high dose infusion of t-PA is delayed for at least one and a half hours after commencing the infusion. These observations suggest that improved thrombolysis may be obtained with t-PA by infusing a high dose over a short period of time. To test this hypothesis we compared the thrombolytic and hemorrhagic effects of t-PA infused over 240, 60, 30 and 15 minutes in the rabbit. A 4 hour infusion of 30,000 U/kg of t-PA produced 36% thrombolysis. The same dose of t-PA infused over 60, 30 and 15 minutes produced 87%, 88% and 96% thrombolysis, respectively (p less than 0.01). The 1 hour infusion of 30,000 U/kg of t-PA produced a significant increase in blood loss relative to saline infusion (p less than 0.01). The same dose infused over 30 and 15 minutes did not produce significantly more bleeding than saline. A higher dose of t-PA, 60,000 U/kg, infused over 4 hours, produced 95% thrombolysis, but was associated with a significant increase of blood loss (p less than 0.001). Our findings suggest that improved thrombolysis with t-PA with minimal bleeding side-effects is achieved in rabbits when t-PA is administered in a relatively high dose given over a short period of time.