Dual-modality optical biopsy of glioblastomas multiforme with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence: ex vivo retrieval of optical properties
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Glioma itself accounts for 80% of all malignant primary brain tumors, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for 55% of such tumors. Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy have the potential to discriminate healthy tissues from abnormal tissues and therefore are promising noninvasive methods for improving the accuracy of brain tissue resection. Optical properties were retrieved using an experimentally evaluated inverse solution. On average, the scattering coefficient is 2.4 times higher in GBM than in low grade glioma (LGG), and the absorption coefficient is 48% higher. In addition, the ratio of fluorescence to diffuse reflectance at the emission peak of 460 nm is 2.6 times higher for LGG while reflectance at 650 nm is 2.7 times higher for GBM. The results reported also show that the combination of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy could achieve sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90% in discriminating GBM from LGG during ex vivo measurements of 22 sites from seven glioma specimens. Therefore, the current technique might be a promising tool for aiding neurosurgeons in determining the extent of surgical resection of glioma and, thus, improving intraoperative tumor identification for guiding surgical intervention.
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