Poractant alfa versus bovine lipid extract surfactant for infants 24+0 to 31+6 weeks gestational age: A randomized controlled trial
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OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of poractant alfa and bovine lipid extract surfactant in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, partially-blinded, multicenter trial. Infants <32 weeks needing surfactant before 48 hours were randomly assigned to receive poractant alfa or bovine lipid extract surfactant. The primary outcome was being alive and extubated at 48 hours post-randomization. Secondary outcomes included need for re-dosing, duration of respiratory support and oxygen, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, mortality and complications during administration. RESULTS: Three centers recruited 87 infants (mean 26.7 weeks and 906 grams) at a mean age of 5.9 hours, between March 2013 and December 2015. 21/42 (50%) were alive and extubated at 48 hours in the poractant alfa group vs 26/45 (57.8%) in the bovine lipid extract surfactant group; adjusted OR 0.76 (95% CI 0.30-1.93) (p = 0.56). No differences were observed in the need to re-dose. Duration of oxygen support (41.5 vs 62 days; adjusted OR 1.69 95% CI 1.02-2.80; p = 0.04) was reduced in infants who received poractant alfa. We observed a trend in bronchopulmonary dysplasia among survivors (51.5% vs 72.1%; adjusted OR 0.35 95%CI 0.12-1.04; p = 0.06) favoring poractant alfa. Twelve infants died before discharge, 9 in the poractant alfa group and 3 in the bovine lung extract group. Severe airway obstruction following administration was observed in 0 (poractant alfa) and 5 (bovine lipid extract surfactant) infants (adjusted OR 0.09 95%CI <0.01-1.27; p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: No statistically significant difference was observed in the proportion of infants alive and extubated within 48h between the two study groups. Poractant alfa may be more beneficial and associated with fewer complications than bovine lipid extract surfactant. However, we observed a trend towards higher mortality in the poractant alfa group. Larger studies are needed to determine whether observed possible benefits translate in shorter hospital admissions, or other long term benefits and determine whether there is a difference in mortality.
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