Craniofacial and dental findings in cystinosis
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OBJECTIVES: Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with developmental and mineralization anomalies as part of its clinical presentation. The objective of this study was to provide the first systematic assessment of the craniofacial and dental characteristics associated with cystinosis. STUDY DESIGN: Oral and radiographic evaluations were performed on 73 patients with cystinosis. Analyses of cephalometry (n = 20), taurodontism (n = 47), caries (n = 47), enamel defects (n = 48), soft tissue anomalies (n = 48), and dental age (n = 41) were performed on the cystinosis group, and compared with age- and sex-comparable controls or standards. RESULTS: Cystinosis patients manifested relative mandibular deficiency, an increased facial height, and a reduced airway space. Taurodontism and enamel defects were significantly more prevalent in cystinosis patients compared with controls (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.027, respectively). Children (aged <15 years) with cystinosis also demonstrated a significant delay, of almost 9 months, of their dental development (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Novel craniofacial and dental features are associated with cystinosis. Craniofacial deficiencies may influence the swallowing and respiratory complications seen in cystinosis. Renal pathology and associated mineral imbalance may explain the dental root and enamel anomalies found in cystinosis patients; the developmental delays in cystinosis include delayed dental formation.