Exercise-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is dramatically inhibited in mice pretreated with a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist, suggesting that β-ARs play an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle PGC-1α expression, and potentially, mitochondrial biogenesis. Accordingly, we hypothesized that acute β-AR stimulation would induce transcriptional pathways involved in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in humans. Whole body protein turnover (WBPT), myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyPS), skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis (MiPS), and mitochondrial biogenic signaling were determined in samples of vastus lateralis obtained on two separate occasions in 10 young adult males following 1 h of continuous intravenous administration of saline (CON) or a nonspecific β-AR agonist [isoproterenol (ISO): 12 ng·kg fat free mass−1·min−1], combined with coinfusion of [1,2]13C-leucine. β-AR stimulation induced appreciable increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure (both P < 0.001) but did not affect mitochondrial biogenic signaling (no change in PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, NRF-2, COX, or NADHox expression via RT-PCR; P > 0.05). Additionally, MiPS [CON: 0.099 ± 0.028, ISO: 0.074 ± 0.046 (mean ± SD); P > 0.05] and MyPS (CON: 0.059 ± 0.008, ISO: 0.055 ± 0.009; P > 0.05), as well as measures of WBPT were unaffected. On the basis of this investigation, we conclude that acute intravenous β-AR stimulation does not increase mitochondrial protein synthesis or biogenesis signals in skeletal muscle.