Biomarkers for Predicting Serious Cardiac Outcomes at 72 Hours in Patients Presenting Early after Chest Pain Onset with Symptoms of Acute Coronary Syndromes
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BACKGROUND: Most outcome studies of patients presenting early to the emergency department with potential acute coronary syndromes have focused on either the index diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) or a composite end point at a later time frame (30 days or 1 year). We investigated the performance of 9 biomarkers for an early serious outcome. METHODS: Patients (n=186) who presented to the emergency department within 6 h of chest pain onset had their presentation serum sample measured for the following analytes: creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB, enhanced AccuTnI troponin I (Beckman Coulter), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), ischemia-modified albumin, interleukin-6, investigation use only hs-cTnI (Beckman Coulter), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and cardiac troponin I (Abbott AxSym). We followed patients until 72 h after presentation and determined whether they experienced the following serious cardiac outcomes: MI, heart failure, serious arrhythmia, refractory ischemic cardiac pain, or death. ROC curves were analyzed to determine the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and optimal cutoffs for the biomarkers. RESULTS: The AUCs for the hs-cTnI assay (0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96), the AccuTnI assay (0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95), and the hs-cTnT assay (0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94) assays were significantly higher than those for the other 6 assays (AUC values≤0.71 for the rest of the biomarkers, P<0.05). The ROC curve-derived optimal cutoffs were ≥19 ng/L (diagnostic sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 88%), ≥0.018 μg/L (diagnostic sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 86%), and ≥32 ng/L (diagnostic sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 92%) for the hs-cTnI, AccuTnI, and hs-cTnT assays, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal cutoffs for predicting serious cardiac outcomes in this low-risk population are different from the published 99th percentiles. Larger studies are required to verify these findings.
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