Adjuvant chemotherapy for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma treated with nephroureterectomy: Assessment of adequate renal function and influence on outcome
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OBJECTIVES: Upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is associated with poor outcomes. Our aim was to assess adequacy of renal function and evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with UTUC treated by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in a universal health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data from 1,029 patients treated with RNU across 10 Canadian academic centers were collected. Tested variables included various clinico-pathological parameters, the use of perioperative chemotherapy, preoperative and postoperative creatinine values, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed overall survival and disease-specific survival after surgery. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare outcomes in patients who received or did not receive AC. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 70 years with a median follow-up of patients who were alive of 26 months. The median preoperative and postoperative eGFR rates were 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 47 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Using a cutoff eGFR of 60, 49% of all the patients and 48% of the patients with ≥ pT3 or pTxN+ or both diseases would have been eligible for cisplatin-based chemotherapy preoperatively and only 18% and 21% of the patients, respectively remained eligible postoperatively. Of the patients who received AC, 75% had an eGFR<60. On multivariate analysis, AC was not prognostic for improved overall survival or disease-specific survival. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic kidney disease is common in patients with UTUC. Following RNU, 57% of the high-risk patients with good preoperative renal function became ineligible for cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Use of AC did not translate into improved survival. Whether this is due to inherent biases of retrospective analysis, limited efficacy of AC in patients with UTUC, or use of suboptimal regimen or dose because of poor postoperative renal function requires further evaluation.
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