Delivery of human factor IX in mice by encapsulated recombinant myoblasts: a novel approach towards allogeneic gene therapy of hemophilia B.
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A potentially cost-effective strategy for gene therapy of hemophilia B is to create universal factor IX-secreting cell lines suitable for implantation into different patients. To avoid graft rejection, the implanted cells are enclosed in alginate-polylysine-alginate microcapsules that are permeable to factor IX diffusion, but impermeable to the hosts' immune mediators. This nonautologous approach was assessed by implanting encapsulated mouse myoblasts secreting human factor IX into allogeneic mice. Human factor IX was detected in the mouse plasma for up to 14 days maximally at approximately 4 ng/mL. Antibodies to human factor IX were detected after 3 weeks at escalating levels, which were sustained throughout the entire experiment (213 days). The antibodies accelerated the clearance of human factor IX from the circulation of the implanted mice and inhibited the detection of human factor IX in the mice plasma in vitro. The encapsulated myoblasts retrieved periodically from the implanted mice up to 213 days postimplantation were viable and continued to secrete human factor IX ex vivo at undiminished rates, hence suggesting continued factor IX gene expression in vivo. Thus, this allogeneic gene therapy strategy represents a potentially feasible alternative to autologous approaches for the treatment of hemophilia B.
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