Predictive Value of Bone Resorption and Formation Markers in Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases Receiving the Bisphosphonate Zoledronic Acid
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PURPOSE: Three large, randomized trials of patients with bone metastases recently demonstrated that zoledronic acid reduces the risk of skeletal-related events. These trials provide an opportunity for investigating the correlation between bone metabolism and clinical outcome during bisphosphonate therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Urinary measurements of N-telopeptide (Ntx) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were obtained in 1,824 bisphosphonate-treated patients-1,462 with zoledronic acid (breast, 490; prostate, 411; myeloma, 210; non-small-cell lung, 183; other, 168) and 362 with pamidronate (breast, 254; myeloma, 108). This exploratory cohort analysis grouped patients by baseline and most recent levels of Ntx as low (< 50 nmol/mmol creatinine), moderate (50 to 99 nmol/mmol creatinine), or high (> or = 100 nmol/mmol creatinine), and BAP as low (< 146 U/L) or high (> or = 146 U/L). The relative risks for negative clinical outcomes were estimated for each group using multiple-event and Cox regression models with time-varying covariates. RESULTS: Patients with high and moderate Ntx levels had 2-fold increases in their risk of skeletal complications and disease progression compared with patients with low Ntx levels (P < .001 for all). High Ntx levels in each solid tumor category were associated with a 4- to 6-fold increased risk of death on study, and moderate Ntx levels a 2- to 4-fold increased risk compared with low Ntx levels (P < .001 for all). Bone alkaline phosphatase also showed some correlation with risk of negative clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The bone resorption marker Ntx provides valuable prognostic information in patients with bone metastases receiving bisphosphonates.
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