Covalent Antithrombin-Heparin Complexes with High Anticoagulant Activity
- Additional Document Info
- View All
Although heparin has been used clinically for prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis, it has suffered from problems such as short duration within compartments in vivo that require long term anticoagulation. A covalent antithrombin-heparin complex has been produced with high anticoagulant activity and a long half-life relative to heparin. The product had high anti-factor Xa and antithrombin activities compared with noncovalent mixtures of antithrombin and heparin (861 and 753 units/mg versus 209 and 198 units/mg, respectively). Reaction with thrombin was rapid with bimolecular and second order rate constants of 1.3 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 and 3.1 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, respectively. The intravenous half-life of the complex in rabbits was 2.6 h as compared with 0.32 h for similar loads of heparin. Subcutaneous injection of antithrombin-heparin resulted in plasma levels (peaking at 24-30 h) that were still detectable 96 h post-injection. Given the increased lifetime in these vascular and intravascular spaces, use of the covalent complex in the lung was investigated. Activity of antithrombin-heparin instilled into rabbit lungs remained for 48 h with no detection of any complex systemically. Thus, this highly active agent has features required for pulmonary sequestration as a possible treatment for thrombotic diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome.
has subject area