Hipoparatiroidismo e hipocalcemia en el postoperatorio de la cirugía del bocio multinodular. Estudio multivariante de los factores de riesgo
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important complications in the patients submitted to thyroid surgery. The aim is to analyze across a multivariate statistical analysis the risks factors for the development of transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism following the multinodular goiter (MG) surgery. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Between 1970 and 1999, 672 thyroidectomies by MG were reviewed. It was considered transient hypoparathyroidism when the calcemia was minor of 7.5 mg/dl or when being minors of 8.5 mg/dl the patient was presenting symptomatology for the hipocalcemia. The hypoparathyroidsm was considered permanent when the calcemia was minor of 8.5 mg/dl to the year of the surgery. RESULTS: The hypoparathyroidism appeared in 75 patients (11.2%), 20 with symptomatology (3%), persisting like permanent 6 cases (0.9%). The risk factors for the development of this were the hyperthyroidism (p = 0.0370), and the surgical technique (p < 0.00001) (unilateral versus bilateral surgery), persisting in the multivariate analysis both variables. With respect to the permanent hypoparathyroidism, the risk factor was the toxic MG (p = 0.0109), persisting as independent risk factor in the multivariate analysis (RR = 2.3). CONCLUSIONS: The principal risk factor of permanent hypoparathyroidism in the MG surgery is the presence of hyperthyroidism.
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