Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) that were made to swim continuously at 1 body length/s for 6 wk had double the growth rate of tank-rested control fish. The endurance to fatigue at a range of swimming velocities of these trained animals was significantly better than that of the controls. Measurement of the rate of protein synthesis in the tissues was carried out by the free pool flooding technique. Protein degradation rates were calculated from the difference between synthesis and net protein accretion. In controls and trained animals the fractional rates of protein synthesis and degradation were ranked gills > ventricle > red muscle > white muscle whereas the efficiencies of conversion of protein synthetised into protein retained as growth were in the reverse sequence. Synthesis rates in three of the four tissues of the trained animals were approximately double those of the control animals. Calculated degradation rates of proteins also increased in the trained animals; the increased growth rates resulted from the proportionately greater increase in the rate of synthesis. The rate of synthesis decreased to control levels once the trained animals ceased swimming.