Infant vitamin D liquid formulations often contain non-medicinal excipients such as glycerin (ie. glycerol) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). We examined whether infant vitamin D supplementation is associated with fecal glycerol and 1,2-PD concentrations at 3 months of age and characterized associations between these two molecules, and gut microbiota and their metabolites. Fecal metabolites and microbiota were quantified using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively, in 575 infants from the CHILD Study at 3 months of age. Vitamin D supplement use was determined using questionnaires. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with greater odds of high 1,2-PD (adjusted OR 1.65 95% CI: 1.06, 2.53) and with decreased odds of high fecal glycerol (adjusted OR: 0.62 95% CI: 0.42, 0.90) after adjustment for breastfeeding and other covariates. Our findings were confirmed in linear regression models; vitamin D supplementation was positively associated with fecal 1,2-PD and inversely associated with glycerol (aβ: 0.37, 95% CI 0.03, 0.71 & aβ: −0.23 95% CI −0.44, −0.03, respectively). Fecal 1,2-PD and glycerol concentrations were negatively correlated with each other. Positive correlations between fecal 1,2-PD, Bifidobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and acetate levels were observed. Our research demonstrates that infant vitamin D supplement administration may differentially and independently influence infant gut microbiota metabolites.