Involvement of AP1 and PEA3 binding sites in the regulation of murine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) transcription
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Transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), a secreted protein that regulates the activities of the metalloproteinases, collagenase and stromelysin, is activated by serum growth factors. Transient transfection experiments have revealed several regions of cis-acting regulatory sequences involved in the response of the murine TIMP-1 gene to serum. One area is in the vicinity of the promoter, consisting of a non-consensus binding site (5'-TGAGTAA-3' at -59/-53) for transcription factor AP1 and an adjacent 24 bp region of dyad symmetry that contains a PEA3-binding site. A second is an upstream region (-1020 to -780) that acts as an enhancer when linked to a heterologous promoter, and contains a consensus AP1 binding site (at -803/ -797). Gel retardation assays revealed differences between nuclear factors in mouse C3H10T1/2 cells that bound to the TIMP(-59/ -53)AP1 site and a consensus collagenase TRE (TPA-response element). The TIMP(-59/ -53)AP1 site is a promiscuous motif that binds c-Fos/c-Jun AP1 translated in vitro and is an effective competitor for binding of nuclear AP1 factors to the consensus TRE, but in addition it binds factors that do not associate with the consensus TRE. The TIMP(-59/ -53)AP1 motif and the dyad symmetry region stimulated expression from a thymidine kinase promoter in an additive fashion, and competition experiments showed that excess copies of these factor binding sites reduced expression from a reporter plasmid driven by the TIMP-1 promoter. Our data show that binding sites for AP1 and PEA3 transcription factors are involved in the regulation of TIMP-1 transcription, which suggests that the coordinated induction of TIMP-1, collagenase and stromelysin may be achieved through the actions of a shared set of nuclear transcription factors. However, the properties of the TIMP-1(-59/ -53)AP1 motif likely reflect an additional type of transcriptional regulation restricted to TIMP-1.
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