Summary Background and objectives
It is unclear how to optimally care for chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study compares a new coordinated model to usual care for CKD.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements
A randomized trial in nephrology clinics and the community included 474 patients with median estimated GFR (eGFR) 42 ml/min per 1.73 m2 identified by laboratory-based case finding compared care coordinated by a general practitioner (controls) with care by a nurse-coordinated team including a nephrologist (intervention) for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 742 days. 32% were diabetic, 60% had cardiovascular disease, and proteinuria was minimal. Guided by protocols, the intervention team targeted risk factors for adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. Serial eGFR and clinical events were tracked.
The average decline in eGFR over 20 months was −1.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2. eGFR declined by ≥4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 within 20 months in 28 (17%) intervention patients
versus23 (13.9%) control patients. Control of BP, LDL, and diabetes were comparable across groups. In the intervention group there was a trend to greater use of renin-angiotensin blockers and more use of statins in those with initial LDL >2.5 mmol/L. Treatment was rarely required for anemia, acidosis, or disordered mineral metabolism. Clinical events occurred in 5.2% per year. Conclusions
Patients with stage 3/4 CKD identified through community laboratories largely had nonprogressive kidney disease but had cardiovascular risk. Over a median of 24 months, the nurse-coordinated team did not affect rate of GFR decline or control of most risk factors compared with usual care.