A Nurse-coordinated Model of Care versus Usual Care for Stage 3/4 Chronic Kidney Disease in the Community: A Randomized Controlled Trial
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how to optimally care for chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study compares a new coordinated model to usual care for CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A randomized trial in nephrology clinics and the community included 474 patients with median estimated GFR (eGFR) 42 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) identified by laboratory-based case finding compared care coordinated by a general practitioner (controls) with care by a nurse-coordinated team including a nephrologist (intervention) for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 742 days. 32% were diabetic, 60% had cardiovascular disease, and proteinuria was minimal. Guided by protocols, the intervention team targeted risk factors for adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. Serial eGFR and clinical events were tracked. RESULTS: The average decline in eGFR over 20 months was -1.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). eGFR declined by ≥4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) within 20 months in 28 (17%) intervention patients versus 23 (13.9%) control patients. Control of BP, LDL, and diabetes were comparable across groups. In the intervention group there was a trend to greater use of renin-angiotensin blockers and more use of statins in those with initial LDL >2.5 mmol/L. Treatment was rarely required for anemia, acidosis, or disordered mineral metabolism. Clinical events occurred in 5.2% per year. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with stage 3/4 CKD identified through community laboratories largely had nonprogressive kidney disease but had cardiovascular risk. Over a median of 24 months, the nurse-coordinated team did not affect rate of GFR decline or control of most risk factors compared with usual care.
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