Analysis of global mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle during recovery from endurance exercise
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To search for novel transcriptional pathways that are activated in skeletal muscle after endurance exercise, we used cDNA microarrays to measure global mRNA expression after an exhaustive bout of high-intensity cycling (approximately 75 min). Healthy, young, sedentary males performed the cycling bout, and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, and at 3 and 48 h after exercise. We examined mRNA expression in individual muscle samples from four subjects using cDNA microarrays, used repeated-measures significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to determine statistically significant expression changes, and confirmed selected results using real-time RT-PCR. In total, the expression of 118 genes significantly increased 3 h postcycling and 8 decreased. At 48 h, the expression of 29 genes significantly increased and 5 decreased. Many of these are potentially important novel genes involved in exercise recovery and adaptation, including several involved in 1) metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (FOXO1, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, nuclear receptor binding protein 2, IL-6 receptor, ribosomal protein L2, aminolevulinate delta-synthase 2); 2) the oxidant stress response (metalothioneins 1B, 1F, 1G, 1H, 1L, 2A, 3, interferon regulatory factor 1); and 3) electrolyte transport across membranes [Na+-K+-ATPase (beta3), SERCA3, chloride channel 4]. Others include genes involved in cell stress, proteolysis, apoptosis, growth, differentiation, and transcriptional activation, as well as all three nuclear receptor subfamily 4A family members (Nur77, Nurr1, and Nor1). This study is the first to characterize global mRNA expression during recovery from endurance exercise, and the results provide potential insight into 1) the transcriptional contributions to homeostatic recovery in human skeletal muscle after endurance exercise, and 2) the transcriptional contributions from a single bout of endurance exercise to the adaptive processes that occur after a period of endurance exercise training.
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