Cisplatin-modification of DNA repair and ionizing radiation lethality in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- Additional Document Info
- View All
Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin) is a DNA inter- and intrastrand crosslinking agent which can sensitize prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to killing by ionizing radiation. The mechanism of radiosensitization is unknown but may involve cisplatin inhibition of repair of DNA damage caused by radiation. Repair proficient wild type and repair deficient (rad52, recombinational repair or rad3, excision repair) strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to determine whether defects in DNA repair mechanisms would modify the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin. We report that cisplatin exposure could sensitize yeast cells with a competent recombinational repair mechanism (wild type or rad3), but could not sensitize cells defective in recombinational repair (rad52), indicating that the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin was due to inhibition of DNA repair processes involving error free RAD52-dependent recombinational repair. The presence or absence of oxygen during irradiation did not alter this radiosensitization. Consistent with this result, cisplatin did not sensitize cells to mutation that results from lesion processing by an error prone DNA repair system. However, under certain circumstances, cisplatin exposure did not cause radiosensitization to killing by radiation in repair competent wild type cells. Within 2 h after a sublethal cisplatin treatment, wild type yeast cells became both thermally tolerant and radiation resistant. Cisplatin pretreatment also suppressed mutations caused by exposure to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a response previously shown in wild type yeast cells following radiation pretreatment. Like radiation, the cisplatin-induced stress response did not confer radiation resistance or suppress MNNG mutations in a recombinational repair deficient mutant (rad52), although thermal tolerance was still induced. These results support the idea that cisplatin adducts in DNA interfere with RAD52-dependent recombinational repair and thereby sensitize cells to killing by radiation. However, the lesions can subsequently induce a general stress response, part of which is induction of RAD52-dependent error free recombinational repair. This stress response confers radiation resistance, thermal tolerance, and mutation resistance in yeast.
has subject area