Interventions Including Smart Technology Compared With Face-to-face Physical Activity Interventions in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Background This is a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and a meta-analysis comparing smart technology with face-to-face physical activity (PA) interventions in community-dwelling older adults (mean age 60 years). Objective This study aims to determine the effect of interventions including smart technology components compared with face-to-face PA interventions on PA and physical function in older adults. The secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and AMED electronic databases from inception to February 2021. Two independent reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and full texts and performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. We provided a narrative synthesis on all included studies and, where possible, performed meta-analyses for similar outcomes. Results This review included 19 studies with a total of 3455 participants. Random effects meta-analyses showed that interventions with smart technology components resulted in improved step count (mean difference 1440 steps, 95% CI 500-2390) and total PA (standardized mean difference 0.17, 95% CI 0.02-0.32) compared with face-to-face alone. There was no difference between groups in terms of the measures of physical function. Smart technology alone did not show significant differences between groups in any outcome. The quality of the evidence was very low based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Conclusions Interventions that include smart technology may improve daily step counts by an average of 1440 steps in community-dwelling older adults; however, the quality of the evidence was very low. Future studies are needed to improve the certainty of these results. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42020135232;


  • D'Amore, Cassandra
  • Reid, Julie C
  • Chan, Matthew
  • Fan, Samuel
  • Huang, Amanda
  • Louie, Jonathan
  • Tran, Andy
  • Chauvin, Stephanie
  • Beauchamp, Marla

publication date

  • October 31, 2022