Enhancement of jump performance after a 5-RM squat is associated with postactivation potentiation
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Weight lifting exercise may induce postactivation potentiation (PAP), thereby enhancing performance of a subsequent biomechanically similar "explosive" movement. However, it has not been shown that weight lifting induces PAP, indicated as potentiation of muscle twitch force. Therefore, the present study tested whether a five repetition maximum squat (5-RM squat) both induced PAP and increased the height of subsequently performed counter-movement jumps (CMJs). Eleven male athletes completed four laboratory sessions on separate days. Two sessions determined whether the 5-RM squat induced PAP: in one, a quadriceps maximal twitch was evoked immediately before and 8 min after a set of five CMJs (control); in the other, a twitch was evoked before a CMJ set, which was followed by a 4-min rest, a 5-RM squat, a 4-min rest, and a second twitch. Another two sessions tested the effect of the 5-RM squat on jump performance: in one session, two sets of five CMJs were performed with an 8-min rest between the sets (control); in the second, a 5-RM squat was performed 4 min after the first set of CMJs, and then after another 4 min the second set of CMJs was performed. Neither twitch torque nor CMJ height changed in the control sessions (P > 0.05). In contrast, interpolation of the 5-RM squat increased (P < 0.05) both twitch torque (49.5 ± 7.8 to 54.8 ± 11.9 N m; i.e., PAP = 10.7%) and CMJ height (48.1 ± 5.6 to 49.5 ± 5.9 cm; 2.9%). Since PAP was present at the time when CMJ height increased, it was concluded that PAP may have contributed to the increased CMJ height after a 5-RM squat.
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