BackgroundEffective treatments for hematologic malignancies include therapies that target tyrosine kinase (TK) signaling pathways. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency that can occur due to rapid turnover following the initiation of treatments for hematologic malignancy. The incidence of TLS is under-reported and it is unclear as to whether TK inhibitors (TKIs) are associated with TLS.
ObjectiveTo conduct a systematic review to determine the incidence of TLS with TKIs.
MethodsA search was performed using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science electronic databases, as well as a manual search of the American Society of Hematology and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstract databases. Keywords included: "tumor lysis syndrome," "tyrosine kinase inhibitors," "lymphoma," and "leukemia."
ResultsWe identified a total of 57 publications that commented on the incidence of TLS with TKIs for hematologic malignancy. Thirty-nine of those publications reported TLS as an adverse event. TLS was described as an adverse event among essentially all the subclasses of TKIs that are used to manage hematologic malignancies.
ConclusionThe overall number of articles commenting on TLS as an adverse event is sparse and there needs to be more transparency regarding the incidence of TLS when employing newer targeted therapies. Physicians should consider the risk of TLS on an individual basis and the added risk of TLS when using TKIs to treat hematologic malignancy.