Calcium influx and spermatogenesis in the testis and liver enzyme activities in the zebrafish are rapidly modulated by the calcium content of the water
Additional Document Info
This study investigated the effects of varying environmental Ca2+ concentrations on the influx of Ca2+ to the testis, testicular morphology, and liver enzymes in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were held in water containing low (0.02 mM), control (0. 7 mM) or high (2 mM) Ca2+ concentrations for 12 h. Testes were then incubated in vitro with 0.1 μCi/mL 45Ca2+ to measure Ca2+ influx at 30 and 60 min and qualitative and quantitative testicular histological analyses were conducted. In addition, activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), enzymes that indicate tissue damage, were evaluated in the liver. The testes from zebrafish exposed in vivo to low (0.02 mM) and high (2 mM) Ca2+ content water had a higher Ca2+ influx than the control group after 30 min of incubation, and at 60 min (high Ca2+ group only). There were morphological changes in the testes from the low and high Ca2+ groups including spermatozoa distributed in dense agglomerates and apoptotic cells. Furthermore, zebrafish exposed to high Ca2+ containing water had an increased density of haploid cells (spermatids and spermatozoa). In addition, both low and high Ca2+ water affected liver function by increasing ALT and GGT activities. Collectively, these studies show that alterations in calcium homeostasis in the testis, stimulation of the spermatogenic wave and hepatic injury were rapid responses to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ in the water.