N-acetylcysteine has been widely used as a nutritional supplement and drug in humans for its antioxidant properties. The complement activation fragment C5a is a strong proinflammatory molecule that mediates cell adhesion, chemotaxis, and the complex biological functions. However, the effect of NAC on the C5a, and the relationship of those two with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury are unknown. In cisplatin induced AKI mouse model, mice with NAC administration had a marked improvement in renal function (BUN and Cr), decreased pathological damage, reduced inflammation, and alleviated renal oxidative stress. Furthermore, C5a and C5aR expression in the cisplatin-treated group was notably increased compared with the control group, and this increase could be significantly inhibited by NAC. In addition, neutrophils coexpressed distinctly with C5aR, and the number of infiltrating neutrophils (MPO+ly6G+) and inflammatory factors decreased with NAC treatment in the cisplatin-treated group. Overall, these data demonstrate that NAC could ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice and the protective effects may be conducted by inhibiting the activation of kidney inflammation and the complement system.