Fungi, as eukaryotic organisms, contain two genomes, the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear genome, in their cells. How the two genomes evolve and correlate to each other is debated. Herein, taking the gourmet pine mushroom
Tricholoma matsutakeas an example, we performed comparative mitogenomic analysis using samples collected from diverse locations and compared the evolution of the two genomes. The T. matsutakemitogenome encodes 49 genes and is rich of repetitive and non‐coding DNAs. Six genes were invaded by up to 11 group I introns, with one cox1intron cox1P372 showing presence/absence dynamics among different samples. Bioinformatic analyses suggested limited or no evidence of mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Interestingly, hundreds of mitochondrial DNA fragments were found in the nuclear genome, with several larger than 500 nt confirmed by PCR assays and read count comparisons, indicating clear evidence of transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome. Nuclear DNA of T. matsutakeshowed a higher mutation rate than mitochondrial DNA. Furthermore, we found evidence of incongruence between phylogenetic trees derived from mitogenome and nuclear DNA sequences. Together, our results reveal the dynamic genome evolution of the gourmet pine mushroom.