Physiological damages of Sargassum cymosum and Hypnea pseudomusciformis exposed to trace metals from mining tailing
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The damages of Mariana's mining mud in the physiology of the brown algae Sargassum cymosum and its main epiphytic, the red algae Hypnea pseudomusciformis, were evaluated by controlled essays. Seaweeds were exposed to presence or absence of mud, isolated or in biological association, for 5 and 15 days. Measured parameters were growth rates, biochemical descriptors, and the chemical investigation of concentration and metal profile of the mud dissolved in seawater. Results showed that the highest values for metals were Al > Fe > Mn > Zn in both exposure periods. The mud also affected the growth rate with lethality in both isolated and associative treatments with H. pseudomusciformis after 15 days. According to our redundancy analysis (RDA), the profile and concentration of all metallic elements can induce different physiological responses of the organisms. We were able to observe a higher physiological adaptive ability of S. cymosum against the long-term presence of metals by the synthesis of phenolic compounds, while the deviation of metabolic routes in H. pseudomusciformis can be addressed as the main responsible for its lethality. Moreover, the presence of Hypnea in associative treatments reduces Sargassum's detoxification ability. The present results reinforce the importance of biological interaction studies in a context of physiological resilience against mining mud pollution and mutual influences of species over the individual ability to avoid oxidative stress.
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