Metformin increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ Co-activator-1α and utrophin a expression in dystrophic skeletal muscle Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • INTRODUCTION: Metformin (MET) stimulates skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key phenotype remodeling protein with emerging therapeutic relevance for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our aim was to identify the mechanism of impact of MET on dystrophic muscle. METHODS: We investigated the effects of MET in cultured C2 C12 muscle cells and mdx mouse skeletal muscle. Expression of potent phenotypic modifiers was assessed, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), PPARδ, and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140), as well as that of the dystrophin-homolog, utrophin A. RESULTS: In C2 C12 cells, MET augmented expression of PGC-1α, PPARδ, and utrophin A, whereas RIP140 content was reciprocally downregulated. MET treatment of mdx mice increased PGC-1α and utrophin A and normalized RIP140 levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identify the impact of MET on skeletal muscle and underscore the timeliness and importance of investigating MET and other AMPK activators as relevant therapeutics for DMD.

publication date

  • July 2015