Quantification of the spatial distribution of rectally applied surrogates for microbicide and semen in colon with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging
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AIMS: We sought to describe quantitatively the distribution of rectally administered gels and seminal fluid surrogates using novel concentration-distance parameters that could be repeated over time. These methods are needed to develop rationally rectal microbicides to target and prevent HIV infection. METHODS: Eight subjects were dosed rectally with radiolabelled and gadolinium-labelled gels to simulate microbicide gel and seminal fluid. Rectal doses were given with and without simulated receptive anal intercourse. Twenty-four hour distribution was assessed with indirect single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and direct assessment via sigmoidoscopic brushes. Concentration-distance curves were generated using an algorithm for fitting SPECT data in three dimensions. Three novel concentration-distance parameters were defined to describe quantitatively the distribution of radiolabels: maximal distance (D(max) ), distance at maximal concentration (D(Cmax) ) and mean residence distance (D(ave) ). RESULTS: The SPECT/CT distribution of microbicide and semen surrogates was similar. Between 1 h and 24 h post dose, the surrogates migrated retrograde in all three parameters (relative to coccygeal level; geometric mean [95% confidence interval]): maximal distance (D(max) ), 10 cm (8.6-12) to 18 cm (13-26), distance at maximal concentration (D(Cmax) ), 3.8 cm (2.7-5.3) to 4.2 cm (2.8-6.3) and mean residence distance (D(ave) ), 4.3 cm (3.5-5.1) to 7.6 cm (5.3-11). Sigmoidoscopy and MRI correlated only roughly with SPECT/CT. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal microbicide surrogates migrated retrograde during the 24 h following dosing. Spatial kinetic parameters estimated using three dimensional curve fitting of distribution data should prove useful for evaluating rectal formulations of drugs for HIV prevention and other indications.
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