Elite volleyball athletes experience significant physical and psychological demands during the competitive season. The aim was to compare the dietary intake of male volleyball athletes with recommendations for sport and health, and to examine the association of physique traits and knee health on eating behaviours and of eating behaviours on reported dietary intake. Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, 22 male athletes from a national indoor volleyball program underwent anthropometric, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and resting metabolic rate testing, 4-day dietary intake and hematological analysis, and also completed the three-factor eating questionnaire–R18 for eating behaviours and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment—patellar tendon (VISA-P) questionnaire for knee health. Most players under-consumed energy compared to reference guidelines, secondary to under-consuming carbohydrate for exercise. The primary eating behaviour was cognitive restraint, which was associated with body mass index and ectomorphy. Emotional eating behaviour was associated with VISA-P. Differences in emotional and cognitive restraint eating behaviours did not impact dietary intake. The findings suggest that players are at risk of an impaired ability to adapt to and recover from training during an important segment of the competitive season. Future work should explore the presence of low energy availability in elite male volleyball players.