Prevalence of Hypertension and Albuminuria in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes
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Importance: Hypertension and albuminuria are markers of diabetes-related nephropathy and important factors associated with kidney outcomes in pediatric type 2 diabetes. However, their prevalence in these patients is unknown. Objective: To measure the prevalence of hypertension and albuminuria in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the association of sex and race/ethnicity with these conditions. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the gray literature, and references of the screened articles were searched for human studies from date of database inception to February 20, 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies with at least 10 participants reporting the prevalence of hypertension and/or albuminuria in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Three teams of 2 independent reviewers screened 7614 papers, of which 60 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Three teams of 2 independent reviewers performed data extraction, risk of bias analysis, and level of evidence analyses. The meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and followed the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes included the pooled prevalence rates (percentages with 95% CI) for hypertension and albuminuria. The secondary outcomes assessed pooled prevalence rates by sex and racial/ethnic group. Results: Sixty studies were included in the systematic review. Diabetes duration varied from inclusion at diagnosis to 15.0 years after diagnosis, and the reported mean age at diagnosis ranged from 6.5 to 21.0 years. Hypertension prevalence among 3463 participants was 25.33% (95% CI, 19.57%-31.53%). Male participants had higher hypertension risk than female participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.42 [95% CI, 1.10-1.83]), with Pacific Islander and Indigenous youth having the highest prevalence of all racial/ethnic groups (Pacific Islander youth: 26.71% [95% CI, 14.54%-40.72%]; Indigenous youth: 26.48% [95% CI, 17.34%-36.74%]; White youth: 20.95% [95% CI, 12.65%-30.57%]; African American youth: 19.04% [95% CI, 12.01%-27.23%]; Hispanic/Latino youth: 15.11% [95% CI, 6.56%-26.30%]; Asian youth: 18.37% [95% CI, 9.49%-29.23%]). Albuminuria prevalence among 2250 participants was 22.17% (95% CI, 17.34%-27.38%). Pacific Islander youth, Indigenous youth, and Asian youth had higher prevalence rates than White youth (Pacific Islander youth: 31.84% [95% CI, 11.90%-55.47%]; Indigenous youth: 24.27% [95% CI, 14.39%-35.73%]; Asian youth: 23.00% [95% CI, 18.85%-27.41%]; White youth: 12.59% [95% CI, 7.75%-18.33%]), with no sex differences (OR for male vs female participants, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.46-1.01]). Heterogeneity was high among studies, with a low to moderate risk of bias. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, markers of diabetes-related nephropathy were commonly detected in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes, with a disproportionate burden noted among Pacific Islander and Indigenous youth. Personalized management strategies to target kidney outcomes are urgently needed in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes to alleviate the burden of this condition on the kidneys.
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