Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Half-Dose Versus Full-Dose Edoxaban in 14,014 Patients With Atrial Fibrillation
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BACKGROUND: In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 48) trial, the lower dose edoxaban regimen (LDER) and the higher dose edoxaban regimen (HDER) were noninferior to well-managed warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present analysis of the ENGAGE AF TIMI-48 trial was to comprehensively compare the net clinical outcome (NCO) of LDER (30 mg once daily, dose reduced to 15 mg in selective patients) versus HDER (60 mg once daily, dose reduced to 30 mg in selective patients). METHODS: This study performed a pre-specified analysis of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, comparing patients on LDER versus HDER. RESULTS: The pre-defined primary NCO (stroke/systemic embolism [SEE], major bleeding, death) was less frequent with LDER (7.26% vs. 8.01%; hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 0.98; p = 0.014). The secondary (disabling stroke, life-threatening bleeding, or all-cause mortality) and tertiary pre-defined NCOs (stroke, SEE, life-threatening bleeding, or all-cause mortality) were similar between the 2 dosing regimens. Patients randomized to LDER versus HDER had a significantly higher risk of stroke/SEE (2.04% vs. 1.56%; hazard ratio: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.52; p < 0.001). Conversely, major bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, major gastrointestinal bleeding, and life-threatening bleeding occurred significantly less frequently with LDER compared with those of HDER. These findings were supported by multiple pharmacokinetic findings. CONCLUSIONS: In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, the primary NCO was reduced with LDER versus HDER, whereas the secondary and tertiary NCOs were similar between the 2 dosing regimens. These results may aid physicians in evidence-based individualization of edoxaban dosing. However, the approved HDER remains the standard therapy among the available edoxaban dosing regimens for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 48 [ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48]; NCT00781391).
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