Neurodevelopmental profiles of children with unilateral cerebral palsy associated with middle cerebral artery and periventricular venous infarctions
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AIM: To compare the neurodevelopment of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) with middle cerebral artery (MCA) and periventricular venous infarctions (PVIs). METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, children with unilateral CP completed a neurological exam, unimanual Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, hand usage questionnaires, and IQ test. Neuroimaging was obtained from health records. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-five participants with unilateral CP had neuroimaging (151 [61.9%] male, ages 2-18y, median=7y 6mo, interquartile range [IQR]=6y 7mo, with 93.6% in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I/II and 78.8% in Manual Ability Classification System level I/II). Ninety-seven (39.6%) had MCA injuries and 106 (43.3%) had periventricular white matter injuries, of which 48 (45.3%) were PVIs. Median Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for the MCA group was 49.2 (IQR=55.8), PVI 79.9 (IQR=23.6) (Mann-Whitney U=988.50, p<0.001). Bimanual hand usage (Children's Hand-use Experience Questionnaire) (Mann-Whitney U=425, p<0.001) and light touch (odds ratio=9.12, 95% confidence interval 1.28-400.76, Fisher's exact test p=0.017) were lower in the MCA compared to the PVI group. Full-scale IQ median centile score for the MCA group was 18.0 (IQR=35.5) and 50.0 (IQR=30.0) for the PVI group (Mann-Whitney U=382, p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: Children with unilateral CP and MCA injuries demonstrated lower hand function and usage, decreased light touch, and lower IQs compared to the PVI group. This study aids in defining rehabilitation needs informed by brain injury patterns.
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