While children with brain tumors are surviving at record rates, survivors are at risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus; these conditions may be driven by excess body fat. Adiponectin in an adipokine that is inversely associated with the fat mass, and has been linked to cardiometabolic risk stratification in the general population. However, adiponectin’s profile and determinants in SCBT have not been established. We tested the hypothesis that high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels, the more biologically active form of adiponectin, were associated with adiposity in SCBT similarly to non-cancer controls. Seventy-four SCBT (n = 32 female) and 126 controls (n = 59 female) who were 5–17 years old were included. Partial correlations and multivariable regression analyses assessed the relationship between HMW adiponectin and adiposity. HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with total and central adiposity (FM%: β − 0.21, 95% CI − 0.15, − 0.08;
pvalue < 0.0001; WHR: β − 0.14, 95% CI − 0.02, − 0.01; pvalue < 0.0001 ;WHtR: β − 0.21, 95% CI − 0.05, − 0.03; pvalue < 0.0001). In conclusion, HMW adiponectin is inversely correlated with adiposity in SCBT. Adiponectin may serve as a biomarker of cardiometabolic risk and response to interventions to prevent and manage obesity and its comorbidities in SCBT.