APOA5 genetic variants are markers for classic hyperlipoproteinemia phenotypes and hypertriglyceridemia
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BACKGROUND: Several known candidate gene variants are useful markers for diagnosing hyperlipoproteinemia. In an attempt to identify other useful variants, we evaluated the association of two common APOA5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the range of classic hyperlipoproteinemia phenotypes. METHODS: We assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles and APOA5 S19W and -1131T>C genotypes in 678 adults from a single tertiary referral lipid clinic and in 373 normolipidemic controls matched for age and sex, all of European ancestry. RESULTS: We observed significant stepwise relationships between APOA5 minor allele carrier frequencies and plasma triglyceride quartiles. The odds ratios for hyperlipoproteinemia types 2B, 3, 4 and 5 in APOA5 S19W carriers were 3.11 (95% CI 1.63-5.95), 4.76 (2.25-10.1), 2.89 (1.17-7.18) and 6.16 (3.66-10.3), respectively. For APOA5 -1131T>C carriers, the odds ratios for these hyperlipoproteinemia subtypes were 2.23 (95% CI 1.21-4.08), 3.18 (1.55-6.52), 3.95 (1.85-8.45) and 4.24 (2.64-6.81), respectively. The overall odds ratio for the presence of either allele in lipid clinic patients was 2.58 (95% CI 1.89-3.52). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of patients with four classic hyperlipoproteinemia phenotypes are carriers of either the APOA5 S19W or -1131T>C variant or both. These two variants are robust genetic biomarkers of a range of clinical hyperlipoproteinemia phenotypes linked by hypertriglyceridemia.
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