Protein misfolding as well as the subsequent self-association and deposition of amyloid aggregates is implicated in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Modulators of amyloidogenic aggregation serve as essential tools to dissect the underlying molecular mechanisms and may offer insight on potential therapeutic solutions. These modulators include green tea catechins, which are potent inhibitors of amyloid aggregation. Although catechins often exhibit poor pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability, they are still essential tools for identifying the drivers of amyloid aggregation and for developing other aggregation modulators through structural mimicry. As an illustration of such strategies, here we review how catechins have been used to map the toxic surfaces of oligomeric amyloid-like species and develop catechin-based phenolic compounds with enhanced anti-amyloid activity.