Molecular Transducers of Human Skeletal Muscle Remodeling under Different Loading States
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Loading of skeletal muscle changes the tissue phenotype reflecting altered metabolic and functional demands. In humans, heterogeneous adaptation to loading complicates the identification of the underpinning molecular regulators. A within-person differential loading and analysis strategy reduces heterogeneity for changes in muscle mass by ∼40% and uses a genome-wide transcriptome method that models each mRNA from coding exons and 3' and 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Our strategy detects ∼3-4 times more regulated genes than similarly sized studies, including substantial UTR-selective regulation undetected by other methods. We discover a core of 141 genes correlated to muscle growth, which we validate from newly analyzed independent samples (n = 100). Further validating these identified genes via RNAi in primary muscle cells, we demonstrate that members of the core genes were regulators of protein synthesis. Using proteome-constrained networks and pathway analysis reveals notable relationships with the molecular characteristics of human muscle aging and insulin sensitivity, as well as potential drug therapies.
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